Tekst został nagrany przez Karę Shallenberg - kayray.org.
Kara, thank you very much!
The next time you are washing your hands and complain because the water temperature isn't just how you like it, think about how things used to be.
Here are some facts about the 1500s:
complain – narzekać
how things used to be – jak to kiedyś było
Most people got married in June because they took their yearly bath in May, and still smelled pretty good by June. However, they were starting to smell, so brides carried a bouquet of flowers to hide the body odor. Hence the custom today of carrying a bouquet when getting married.
get married – żenić się, wychodzić za mąż
yearly – coroczny, raz do roku
bath – kąpiel
smell – pachnieć, śmierdzieć, wąchać
pretty good – dość/całkiem dobrze
bride – panna młoda
bouquet – bukiet
body odor – nieprzyjemny zapach ciała/potu
carry – nieść
Baths consisted of a big tub filled with hot water. The man of the house had the privilege of the nice clean water, then all the other sons and men, then the women and finally the children. Last of all the babies. By then the water was so dirty you could actually lose someone in it. Hence the saying, Don't throw the baby out with the bath water...
tub – balia, wanna
privelege – przywilej
last of all – na samym końcu
actually – w rzeczywistości; prawdę powiedziawszy
hence – stąd, dlatego też
saying – powiedzenie
throw the baby out with the bath water – wylać dziecko z kąpielą
Houses had thatched roofs with no wood underneath. It was the only place for animals to get warm, so all the cats and other small animals (mice, bugs) lived in the roof. When it rained it became slippery and sometimes the animals would slip and fall off the roof. Hence the saying, It's raining cats and dogs.
thatched – pokryty strzechą
underneath – pod spodem
get warm – zagrzać się, ogrzać się
bug – pluskwa, robak
slippery – ślisko
slip – ześlizgnąć się
it's raining cats and dogs – leje jak z cebra
There was nothing to stop things from falling into the house. This posed a real problem in the bedroom where bugs and other droppings could mess up your nice clean bed. Hence, a bed with big posts and a sheet hung over the top afforded some protection. That's how canopy beds came into existence.
there was nothing to stop – nic nie mogło powstrzymać
fall into – wpadać
pose a real problem – stanowić poważny problem
droppings – odchody
mess up – zapaskudzić
post – słupek
afford – zapewnić
protection – ochrona
canopy bed – łóżko z baldachimem
come into existence – zaistnieć, pojawić się
The floor was dirt. Only the wealthy had something other than dirt. Hence the saying, dirt-poor. The wealthy had slate floors that would get slippery in the winter when wet, so they spread thresh on floor to help keep their footing. As the winter wore on, they added more thresh until, when you opened the door, it would all start slipping outside. A piece of wood was placed in the entranceway. Hence the saying, a thresh hold.
dirt – ziemia, klepisko
the wealthy – bogaci
poor – biedny
dirt-poor – bardzo biedny
slate – płytka
get slippery – stawać się śliskim
spread – rozkładać
thresh – wymłócone zboże, słoma
keep footing – utrzymywać równowagę
slip outside – wyślizgiwać się na zewnątrz
entranceway – wejście
threshold – próg
In those old days, they cooked in the kitchen with a big kettle that always hung over the fire. Every day they lit the fire and added things to the pot. They ate mostly vegetables and did not get much meat. They would eat the stew for dinner, leaving leftovers in the pot to get cold overnight and then start over the next day. Sometimes stew had food in it that had been there for quite a while. Hence the rhyme, Peas porridge hot, peas porridge cold, peas porridge in the pot nine days old...
kettle – czajnik, kociołek
lit the fire – rozpalać ogień
add – dodawać
pot – garnek
stew – duszone mięso z jarzynami
leftovers – resztki
overnight – w ciągu nocy
rhyme – wierszyk
peas – groszek
porridge – owsianka
Sometimes they could obtain pork, which made them feel quite special. When visitors came over, they would hang up their bacon to show off. It was a sign of wealth that a man could, bring home the bacon. They would cut off a little to share with guests and would all sit around and chew the fat...
obtain – zdobyć, uzyskać
pork – wieprzowina
come over – przyjść (z wizytą)
bacon – boczek
show off – popisywać się
wealth – bogactwo, dostatek
chew – żuć
fat – tłuszcz
chew the fat – gawędzić
Those with money had plates made of pewter. Food with high acid content caused some of the lead to leach onto the food, causing lead poisoning death. This happened most often with tomatoes, so for the next 400 years or so, tomatoes were considered poisonous.
pewter – cyna
acid – kwas
content – zawartość
lead – ołów
leach – przesączać, przeciekać
lead poisoning – zatrucie ołowiem
poisonous – trujący
Bread was divided according to status. Workers got the burnt bottom of the loaf, the family got the middle, and guests got the top, or the upper crust.
according to – według, zgodnie z
burnt – spalony
bottom – spód
upper crust – górna skórka (chleba); klasa wyższa
Lead cups were used to drink ale or whisky. The combination would sometimes knock the imbibers out for a couple of days. Someone walking along the road would take them for dead and prepare them for burial. They were laid out on the kitchen table for a couple of days and the family would gather around and eat and drink and wait and see if they would wake up. Hence the custom of holding a wake.
imbiber – osoba pijąca
knock out – powalić, pozbawić przytomności
take for dead – uznać za martwego
burial – pogrzeb
lay out – rozłożyć
gather – gromadzić się
wake up – obudzić się
custom – zwyczaj
wake – czuwanie; stypa
England is old and small and the local folks started running out of places to bury people. So they would dig up coffins and would take the bones to a bone-house, and reuse the grave. When reopening these coffins, 1 out of 25 coffins were found to have scratch marks on the inside and they realized they had been burying people alive. So they would tie a string on the wrist of the corpse, lead it through the coffin and up through the ground and tie it to a bell. Someone would have to sit out in the graveyard all night (the graveyard shift) to listen for the bell; thus, someone could be, saved by the bell or was considered a... dead ringer.
folks – ludzie; rodzina, krewni
bury – grzebać, pochować, urządzić pogrzeb
dig up – wykopać
coffin – trumna
bone – kość
bone-house – dawniej: miejsce składowania kości zmarłych
scratch marks – ślady po drapaniu
inside – wnętrze
bury people alive – pogrzebać ludzi żywcem
tie – przywiązać
string – sznurek
wrist – nadgarstek
corpse – zwłoki
lead – przeprowadzić
ground – ziemia
bell – dzwonek
graveyard – cmentarz
the graveyard shift – nocna zmiana
be considered – być uznanym
dead ringer – sobowtór
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