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Czytelnia – Fact or Fiction?

Tekst został nagrany przez Karę Shallenberg -
Kara, thank you very much!

Wersja do drukuPrześlij innym

The next time you are washing your hands and complain because the water temperature isn't just how you like it, think about how things used to be.

Here are some facts about the 1500s:

complain – narzekać

how things used to be – jak to kiedyś było

Most people got married in June because they took their yearly bath in May, and still smelled pretty good by June. However, they were starting to smell, so brides carried a bouquet of flowers to hide the body odor. Hence the custom today of carrying a bouquet when getting married.

get married – żenić się, wychodzić za mąż

yearly – coroczny, raz do roku

bath – kąpiel

smell – pachnieć, śmierdzieć, wąchać

pretty good – dość/całkiem dobrze

bride – panna młoda

bouquet – bukiet

body odor – nieprzyjemny zapach ciała/potu

carry – nieść

Baths consisted of a big tub filled with hot water. The man of the house had the privilege of the nice clean water, then all the other sons and men, then the women and finally the children. Last of all the babies. By then the water was so dirty you could actually lose someone in it. Hence the saying, Don't throw the baby out with the bath water...

tub – balia, wanna

privelege – przywilej

last of all – na samym końcu

actually – w rzeczywistości; prawdę powiedziawszy

hence – stąd, dlatego też

saying – powiedzenie

throw the baby out with the bath water – wylać dziecko z kąpielą

Houses had thatched roofs with no wood underneath. It was the only place for animals to get warm, so all the cats and other small animals (mice, bugs) lived in the roof. When it rained it became slippery and sometimes the animals would slip and fall off the roof. Hence the saying, It's raining cats and dogs.

thatched – pokryty strzechą

underneath – pod spodem

get warm – zagrzać się, ogrzać się

bug – pluskwa, robak

slippery – ślisko

slip – ześlizgnąć się

it's raining cats and dogs – leje jak z cebra

There was nothing to stop things from falling into the house. This posed a real problem in the bedroom where bugs and other droppings could mess up your nice clean bed. Hence, a bed with big posts and a sheet hung over the top afforded some protection. That's how canopy beds came into existence.

there was nothing to stop – nic nie mogło powstrzymać

fall into – wpadać

pose a real problem – stanowić poważny problem

droppings – odchody

mess up – zapaskudzić

post – słupek

afford – zapewnić

protection – ochrona

canopy bed – łóżko z baldachimem

come into existence – zaistnieć, pojawić się

The floor was dirt. Only the wealthy had something other than dirt. Hence the saying, dirt-poor. The wealthy had slate floors that would get slippery in the winter when wet, so they spread thresh on floor to help keep their footing. As the winter wore on, they added more thresh until, when you opened the door, it would all start slipping outside. A piece of wood was placed in the entranceway. Hence the saying, a thresh hold.

dirt – ziemia, klepisko

the wealthy – bogaci

poor – biedny

dirt-poor – bardzo biedny

slate – płytka

get slippery – stawać się śliskim

spread – rozkładać

thresh – wymłócone zboże, słoma

keep footing – utrzymywać równowagę

slip outside – wyślizgiwać się na zewnątrz

entranceway – wejście

threshold – próg

In those old days, they cooked in the kitchen with a big kettle that always hung over the fire. Every day they lit the fire and added things to the pot. They ate mostly vegetables and did not get much meat. They would eat the stew for dinner, leaving leftovers in the pot to get cold overnight and then start over the next day. Sometimes stew had food in it that had been there for quite a while. Hence the rhyme, Peas porridge hot, peas porridge cold, peas porridge in the pot nine days old...

kettle – czajnik, kociołek

lit the fire – rozpalać ogień

add – dodawać

pot – garnek

stew – duszone mięso z jarzynami

leftovers – resztki

overnight – w ciągu nocy

rhyme – wierszyk

peas – groszek

porridge – owsianka

Sometimes they could obtain pork, which made them feel quite special. When visitors came over, they would hang up their bacon to show off. It was a sign of wealth that a man could, bring home the bacon. They would cut off a little to share with guests and would all sit around and chew the fat...

obtain – zdobyć, uzyskać

pork – wieprzowina

come over – przyjść (z wizytą)

bacon – boczek

show off – popisywać się

wealth – bogactwo, dostatek

chew – żuć

fat – tłuszcz

chew the fat – gawędzić

Those with money had plates made of pewter. Food with high acid content caused some of the lead to leach onto the food, causing lead poisoning death. This happened most often with tomatoes, so for the next 400 years or so, tomatoes were considered poisonous.

pewter – cyna

acid – kwas

content – zawartość

lead – ołów

leach – przesączać, przeciekać

lead poisoning – zatrucie ołowiem

poisonous – trujący

Bread was divided according to status. Workers got the burnt bottom of the loaf, the family got the middle, and guests got the top, or the upper crust.

according to – według, zgodnie z

burnt – spalony

bottom – spód

upper crust – górna skórka (chleba); klasa wyższa

Lead cups were used to drink ale or whisky. The combination would sometimes knock the imbibers out for a couple of days. Someone walking along the road would take them for dead and prepare them for burial. They were laid out on the kitchen table for a couple of days and the family would gather around and eat and drink and wait and see if they would wake up. Hence the custom of holding a wake.

imbiber – osoba pijąca

knock out – powalić, pozbawić przytomności

take for dead – uznać za martwego

burial – pogrzeb

lay out – rozłożyć

gather – gromadzić się

wake up – obudzić się

custom – zwyczaj

wake – czuwanie; stypa

England is old and small and the local folks started running out of places to bury people. So they would dig up coffins and would take the bones to a bone-house, and reuse the grave. When reopening these coffins, 1 out of 25 coffins were found to have scratch marks on the inside and they realized they had been burying people alive. So they would tie a string on the wrist of the corpse, lead it through the coffin and up through the ground and tie it to a bell. Someone would have to sit out in the graveyard all night (the graveyard shift) to listen for the bell; thus, someone could be, saved by the bell or was considered a... dead ringer.

folks – ludzie; rodzina, krewni

bury – grzebać, pochować, urządzić pogrzeb

dig up – wykopać

coffin – trumna

bone – kość

bone-house – dawniej: miejsce składowania kości zmarłych

scratch marks – ślady po drapaniu

inside – wnętrze

bury people alive – pogrzebać ludzi żywcem

tie – przywiązać

string – sznurek

wrist – nadgarstek

corpse – zwłoki

lead – przeprowadzić

ground – ziemia

bell – dzwonek

graveyard – cmentarz

the graveyard shift – nocna zmiana

be considered – być uznanym

dead ringer – sobowtór

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