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Słuchaj i ucz się – S-20. Neem Tree

Wersja do druku

Voice 1

neem tree - miodla indyjska (gatunek drzewa)

Hello. I'm Elizabeth Lickiss.

 

Voice 2

 

And I'm Mike Procter. Welcome to Spotlight. This programme uses a special English method of broadcasting. It is easier for people to understand, no matter where in the world they live.

 

Voice 1

 

A large tree stands in the middle of the village. People shelter under it. The leaves of the tree protect them from the fierce sun. The temperature is always a few degrees cooler under the tree. The Neem tree is important to village life in Rajasthan, India. Every village community has its own tree. The Neem tree is a meeting point for village people. It is a place to do business deals. People have used the Neem to protect their crops and their lives for centuries. People often talk about the tree's healing power. They say that it can cure skin problems and prevent infection. Local people know how important the tree is. But now people in the rest of the world are also interested. The ancient tree has become the centre of an international legal battle. Who owns the rights to its medicinal healing powers?

village - wieś, wioska

shelter - schronienie

protect - chronić

fierce sun - palące słońce

degree - stopień

community - społeczeństwo

deal - transakcja, interes

crops - zbiory, uprawy, plony

century - wiek

healing power - moc uzdrowicielska

cure - leczyć

prevent infection - zapobiegać infekcjom

ancient - starożytny, pradawny

medicinal - leczniczy

Voice 2

 

People often go to a pharmacy store to buy their medicines. At a pharmacy they can choose the right drugs to treat their sickness or condition. But local people often call the Neem tree the 'village pharmacy' of South Asia. This is because the Neem is used in so many traditional medicines. Ancient Sanskrit books tell about the Neem's many uses. Village women treat skin conditions using the Neem. They grind the leaves into a thick substance. Then they rub the substance into the patient's skin. The effect on the skin is good. It can help ease any pain. It stops insect bites from becoming infectious. It helps the skin to heal.

pharmacy store - apteka

medicine - lekarstwo

drug - lekarstwo

treat - leczyć

sickness - choroba

condition - choroba, schorzenie

grind - mielić

thick substance - gęsta substancja

rub - wcierać

ease the pain - złagodzić ból

insect bites - ugryzienia owadów

infectious - zaraźliwy

Voice 1

 

But Neem leaves do not just help skin conditions. The Neem leaves can also help protect clothes. In the summer time village women put away their heavy winter clothes. They have to store them carefully. They will need them next year. However insects are a problem. Moths can damage the clothes. But women in South Asia know what to do. They place Neem leaves between the stored clothes. Moths and other insects do not like the smell of the leaves. They stay away.

put away - odkładać

store - przechowywać

moth - mól

Voice 2

 

Village people also make a drink out of the Neem leaves. This is used to treat diarrhoea. Diarrhoea is a major medical problem in many communities. Diarrohea is when solid body waste becomes, well- not solid. Diarrohea is sometimes caused by small creatures - worms. The worms enter the body in unclean food or uncooked meat. Experts at the WHO say that diarrhoea is a leading cause of child death in the world. Young children are at high risk. But the people of South Asia know that the Neem tree can help in these cases. Village people boil the Neem leaves and make a liquid. The liquid does not taste good. But drinking it often stops the diarrhoea. It also helps to kill the worms.

diarrhoea - biegunka

major - główny

solid - stały

creature - stworzenie

worm - robak

enter the body - dostawać się do organizmu

unclean food - brudne jedzenie

WHO = World Health Organisation - Światowa Organizacja Zdrowia

leading cause - główna przyczyna

liquid - płyn

Voice 1

 

People have found hundreds of different uses for the Neem tree. They often use it as a tool to clean between teeth. Village people break off a small part of the tree. They put one end of the stick in their mouths. They bite the end until it becomes soft. Then they use this end to clean between their teeth. The Neem is a natural antiseptic. It helps to kill harmful bacteria in the mouth. In this way it protects the teeth from damage.

tool - narzędzie

break off - odłamywać

bite - gryźć

soft - miękki

antiseptic - środek odkażający

Voice 2

 

The people of South Asia have known about the Neem for centuries. But now expert scientists are also interested in its qualities. The experts are especially interested in Neem tree oil. Pressing the seeds of the Neem tree produces the oil. This oil contains Azadirachtin. Azadirachtin is an important natural pesticide and fungicide. People can use it to destroy pests such as unwanted insects and moulds. These pests often attack food crops and destroy them. Azadirachtin can also fight bacteria and viruses - the organisms that cause harmful diseases to people.

qualities - właściwości

press the seeds - wytłaczać nasiona

oil - olej

contain - zawierać

pesticide - pestycyd, środek przeciw szkodnikom

fungicide - środek grzybobójczy

pest - szkodnik; plaga, zaraza

insect - owad

mould - pleśń

Voice 1

 

Doctor Ramesh Saxena is head of the Neem Foundation in India. He has used Neem as a natural pesticide in South Asia, the Philippines, East Africa and Australia. He believes that Neem may be useful across the world. It may be able to help prevent diseases like malaria. A parasite causes the malaria disease. A parasite is a very small organism that can enter the body. An insect carries the parasite that causes malaria. The insect is a particular kind of mosquito. It bites people. It then feeds on their blood. In this way the parasite can pass from the mosquito into the human blood system.

head - przewodniczący

parasite - pasożyt

feed on - żywić się

blood system - system krwionośny

Voice 2

 

A natural pesticide such as Azadirachtin may be useful in the battle against malaria. People often use chemical pesticides created by industry for this purpose. But Azadirachtin is a natural substance. It comes from a tree. Many experts believe that it could be better for the environment.

battle - walka, bitwa

purpose - cel

environment - środowisko

Voice 1

 

Many large companies would like the only or exclusive right to sell this natural pesticide. Large profits are possible. An exclusive right would prevent other companies from also making money from the Neem. But should anyone be able to claim ownership of the Neem and its natural pesticide?

exclusive right - wyłączne prawo

profits - zyski

claim ownership - domagać się prawa własności

Doctor Vandana Shiva is a leading Indian Environmentalist. He claims that no one person or company can have rights to this ancient knowledge. Doctor Shiva says that people have used the Neem for centuries as a natural pesticide. He argues that for this reason it is public property. Over the past ten years he has been fighting to protect the Neem.

claim - twierdzić

public property - własność publiczna

Voice 2

 

The government of India has also reacted. It is also working to protect the Neem. Vinod Gupta is in charge of the 'Traditional Knowledge Digital library'. The library is based in Delhi. Here, Vinod and his team record the details of all traditional medicines. They translate ancient writings. They have recorded millions of such medicines. The library acts as a useful information centre. Patent offices around the world use the library. Patent offices have the authority to award ownership rights to companies. But before they give a right or patent they do careful research. To gain a patent a company has to prove that its medicine or process is new. Medicines or cures used by ancient peoples are not new.

in charge of - być odpowiedzialnym za, sprawować kontrolę, zarządzać

is based - znajduje się

patent office - biuro patentowe

award - przyznać

ownership right - prawo własności

research - badania

Voice 1

 

Vinod and others hope to protect the medicinal powers of the Neem for everyone to enjoy. Many important Indian scientists support their campaign. They believe that the Neem is God's gift to the world. Doctor BN Dhawan is a scientist at the Central Drug Research Institute. He says,

gift - dar

Voice 3

 

'I believe it would be terrible if the gains from using the Neem to go to an individual or to a company. I sincerely hope that the Neem will continue to be used by people all over the world without the need to pay a high price to a company.'

gains - zyski

I sincerely hope - mam szczerą nadzieję

Voice 2

 

The writer of today's programme was Elizabeth Lickiss. The voices you heard were from the United Kingdom. Computer users can hear our programmes on our website at www.radio.english.net. This programme is called 'Neem Tree'. Thank you for joining us in today's Spotlight programme. Goodbye

 

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