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Data:

21 stycznia 2011 r.

Temat:

Mowa zależna - reporting verbs


W mowie zależnej najczęściej używamy czasowników say i tell. Należy pamiętać, że po tell wymagane jest dopełnienie (powiedzieć komuś), a po say występuje od razu zdanie podrzędne.

  • He told me he was going to move out.
    Powiedział mi, że zamierza się wyprowadzić.
  • He said he was going to move out.
    Powiedział, że zamierza się wyprowadzić.
  • She told Mark she wouldn't stay with him.
    Powiedziała Markowi, że z nim nie zostanie.
  • She said she wouldn't stay with him.
    Powiedziała, że z nim nie zostanie.

Jeśli po say chcemy wprowadzić dopełnienie, musimy użyć to.

  • They said to her she had breast cancer.
    Powiedzieli jej, że ma raka piersi.

Say i tell to nie jedyne czasowniki, których używamy do relacjonowania czyichś wypowiedzi.

Czasownik Mowa niezależna Mowa zależna
accuse - oskarżyć It was you who stole the money. He accused her of stealing the money.
admit - przyznać Yes, I've forgotten about that. She admitted that she had forgotten about that. / She admitted forgetting about that.
advise - poradzić I think you should take a taxi. He advised me to take a taxi.
agree - zgodzić się OK, I'll pay for the damage. She agreed to pay for the damage.
allow - pozwolić You can leave now. He allowed me to leave.
apologise - przeprosić I'm sorry I didn't call you. He apologised for not calling me.
ask - poprosić Can I see your passport, please? He asked to see my passport.
beg - błagać Please, don't go there. She begged him not to go there.
blame - obwinić We missed the train because of you. She blamed him for missing the train.
claim - twierdzić I've met the President. He claimed that he had met the President. / He claimed to have met the President.
command - rozkazać Stop that car! The officer commanded to stop that car.
complain - narzekać Jack, I don't know what to do. John is so rude. She complained to me about John's rude behaviour.
congratulate - pogratulować I'm so happy that you have passed the exam. She congratulated me on passing the exam.
decide - zdecydować We'll sue the company. They decided to sue the company.
demand - zażądać I want to see the manager. She demanded to see the manager.
deny - zaprzeczyć I didn't break your car. He denied breaking my car.
encourage - zachęcić You can do it! Go for it! They encouraged him to do it.
exclaim - wykrzyknąć It's useless! He exclaimed that it was useless.
explain - wyjaśnić I'm going to stay with my sister. She explained that she was going to stay with her sister.
forbid - zabronić You mustn't press this button. He forbade me to press that button.
inform - poinformować You have won first prize. They informed me that I had won first prize.
insist - nalegać You really must have a rest. She insisted on me having a rest. / She insisted that I (should) have a rest.
instruct - poinstruować Report everything to the manager. He instructed them to report everything to the manager.
invite - zaprosić Would you care to join us for dinner? They invited us for dinner.
offer - zaoferować I'll drive you home. He offered to drive me home.
order - zalecić, rozkazać You should stay in bed for a week. The doctor ordered her to stay in bed for a week.
permit - pozwolić You may take our company car. He permitted me to take their company car.
praise - pochwalić You did a good job! She praised me for doing a good job.
promise - obiecać We'll finish the work in two days. They promised to finish the work in two days.
recommend - zalecić, polecić If I were you, I'd get some professional advice. He recommended that I get some professional advice.
refuse - odmówić I won't give you the money. She refused to give him the money.
remind - przypomnieć Don't forget to call me. She reminded me to call her.
suggest - zaproponować Shall we go to a nightclub? He suggested going to a nightclub.
threaten - zagrozić I'll inform the police about it. He threatened to inform the police about it.
urge - usilnie namawiać Come on, stay with us longer. They urged us to stay with them longer.
warn - ostrzec Don't eat the mushrooms. She warned me not to eat the mushrooms.
wonder - zastanawiać się Where can he be? She wondered where he could be.

Zwróćcie także uwagę na różnorodność konstrukcji w zależności od czasownika.

  • czasownik + bezokolicznik: agree to do
  • czasownik + -ing: suggest doing
  • czasownik + dopełnienie + bezokolicznik: remind somebody to do
  • czasownik + that: explain that

Niektóre czasowniki mogą występować w różnych konstrukcjach:

  • advise somebody to do
  • advise somebody on
  • advise somebody against
  • advise doing
  • advise (somebody) that
  • advise what/where/how/when

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